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In Microsoft announced that it would start using Git , an open source version control system created by Linus Torvalds and in May they reported that has completed migration into the Git repository.

Because of its large, decades-long history, however, the Windows codebase is not especially well suited to the decentralized nature of Linux development that Git was originally created to manage. Version market share As a percentage of desktop and laptop systems using Windows, [82] according to StatCounter data from July Use of Windows 10 has exceeded Windows 7 globally since early Including personal computers of all kinds e. Those statistics do not include servers including so-called cloud computing , where Microsoft is known not to be a leader, with Linux used more than Windows , as Net Applications and StatCounter use web browsing as a proxy for all use.

Consumer versions of Windows were originally designed for ease-of-use on a single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the outset. These design issues combined with programming errors e.

In June , Bruce Schneier ‘s Counterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1, new viruses and worms in the previous six months. Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a month usually the second Tuesday of the month , although critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary.

While the Windows 9x series offered the option of having profiles for multiple users, they had no concept of access privileges , and did not allow concurrent access; and so were not true multi-user operating systems. In addition, they implemented only partial memory protection. They were accordingly widely criticised for lack of security. The Windows NT series of operating systems, by contrast, are true multi-user, and implement absolute memory protection.

However, a lot of the advantages of being a true multi-user operating system were nullified by the fact that, prior to Windows Vista, the first user account created during the setup process was an administrator account, which was also the default for new accounts.

Though Windows XP did have limited accounts, the majority of home users did not change to an account type with fewer rights — partially due to the number of programs which unnecessarily required administrator rights — and so most home users ran as administrator all the time. Windows Vista changes this [95] by introducing a privilege elevation system called User Account Control. When logging in as a standard user, a logon session is created and a token containing only the most basic privileges is assigned.

In this way, the new logon session is incapable of making changes that would affect the entire system. When logging in as a user in the Administrators group, two separate tokens are assigned.

The first token contains all privileges typically awarded to an administrator, and the second is a restricted token similar to what a standard user would receive. User applications, including the Windows shell , are then started with the restricted token, resulting in a reduced privilege environment even under an Administrator account.

When an application requests higher privileges or “Run as administrator” is clicked, UAC will prompt for confirmation and, if consent is given including administrator credentials if the account requesting the elevation is not a member of the administrators group , start the process using the unrestricted token.

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks , codenamed Vault 7 and dated from to , detail the capabilities of the CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare, [97] such as the ability to compromise operating systems such as Windows.

In August , computer experts reported that the BlueKeep security vulnerability , CVE – , that potentially affects older unpatched Windows versions via the program’s Remote Desktop Protocol , allowing for the possibility of remote code execution , may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue , affecting newer Windows versions i.

These global groups then hold other groups or users depending on different Windows versions used. This system varies from other vendor products such as Linux and NetWare due to the ‘static’ allocation of permission being applied directly to the file or folder.

Owing to the operating system’s popularity, a number of applications have been released that aim to provide compatibility with Windows applications, either as a compatibility layer for another operating system, or as a standalone system that can run software written for Windows out of the box.

These include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Family of computer operating systems developed by Microsoft. For the part of a building, see Window. For other uses, see Windows disambiguation. This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources.

Closed-source Source-available through Shared Source Initiative. Main article: History of Microsoft Windows. See also: List of Microsoft Windows versions. Main articles: Windows 1. Main articles: Windows 3. Main article: Windows NT. Main articles: Windows NT 3. Main article: Windows XP. Main article: Windows Vista.

Main article: Windows 7. Main articles: Windows 8 and Windows 8. Main article: Windows See also: Azure Virtual Desktop. Main article: Xbox system software. Table of Windows versions. Old version.

Older version, still maintained. Latest version. Latest preview version. Future release. Windows timeline: Bar chart. Main article: Usage share of operating systems. This box: view talk edit. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

May Microsoft Support. August 9, Windows Insider Blog. July 28, August 2, August 3, Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved April 5, Retrieved April 22, StatCounter Global Stats.

Retrieved January 5, Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved May 16, Retrieved July 26, April 20, Archived from the original on September 6, Archived from the original on December 15, Retrieved November 7, PC World. May 26, Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved February 10, Archived from the original on March 27, Retrieved March 26, Microsoft GUI Lawsuit”. Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved March 12, MicroSoft Corp.

Archived from the original on December 14, Archived from the original on February 8, Archived from the original on February 11, Archived from the original on May 14, Archived from the original on January 12, Retrieved January 3, Archived from the original on November 8, October 30, Archived from the original on May 24, Retrieved September 4, August 25, Application server technologies are tightly integrated to provide and offer management benefits such as integrated setup, enhanced monitoring, Remote Web Workplace , a unified management console , and remote access.

Windows Server Essentials was the last release of this product. Microsoft has since discontinued this suite in favor of Microsoft and Microsoft Azure. Those holding an “Essentials” license receive an activation key for Windows Server instead. With the release of Windows , however, Microsoft spun off Small Business Server as a separate offering. The Essentials edition is a scaled down version for 1 to 25 users; the other editions are based on the Windows Server codebase and include Exchange Server , Windows SharePoint Services , and Microsoft Outlook in addition to what comes with Window Server.

Four versions of Windows Server Essentials were released along with their Windows Server siblings: , R2, [6] , and In September , the Windows Server hinted that Windows Server Essentials might be the last version of this product. At the time of discontinuation, Microsoft offered the same software as part of its Microsoft and Microsoft Azure plans.

Normally, Microsoft licenses its on-premises server products on a per-seat or per-user basis, i. Businesses that install them require to obtain client access licenses CALs. However, this has not always been the case. Windows Small Business Server has the following design restrictions: [27]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Windows Server Essentials documentations. Microsoft — via Microsoft Docs. Ideal for. Licensing model.

CAL requirements [1]. Highly virtualized datacenters and cloud environments. Windows Server CAL. Physical or minimally virtualized environments. Small businesses with up to 25 users and 50 devices. No CAL required. The following chart indicates the possible upgrade paths:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikimedia list article. News Center. Retrieved May 26, Ars Technica. Retrieved June 2, January 29, Retrieved April 3, January 17, Redmond Magazine. Retrieved May 30, Windows Vista Team Blog.

Archived from the original on November 10, Windows How-to. SuperSite for Windows. Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved October 23, Archived from the original on June 8, PC World. Retrieved October 25, Archived from the original RTF on September 7,